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Journal of Economic Integration 2014 September;29(3) :407-429.
Revenue-Generating Schemes for International Unions

Andrii O. Boiar 

Vadym Hetman Kyiv National Economic University, Kyiv,Ukraine
Corresponding Author: Andrii O. Boiar ,Tel: +380 443716145, Fax: +380 443716145, Email:,
Copyright ©2014 Journal of Economic Integration
This paper investigates possible options for generating revenue in international unions. The empirical evidence is found for three types of revenue-generating schemes: contributions, direct taxes, and the combination of two. Discussion of peculiarities, advantages and shortcomings of each scheme led to the conclusion that financial needs, interstate heterogeneity, objectives and success of integration are the key factors determining the choice of a revenue-generating scheme. There is no clear pattern in the distribution of the schemes among different international unions. However, mixed scheme becomes more preferable to ensure sustainable financing international unions. Also, direct tax scheme would be the infant stage of a tax union that had no precedent in the modern history of economic integration.

JEL Classification
F55: International Institutional Arrangements
E62: Fiscal Policy
G28: Government Policy and Regulation
Keywords: Revenue | International Union | Budget | Contribution | Tax
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