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Journal of Economic Integration 2019 March;34(1) :133-158.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.11130/jei.2019.34.1.133
De jure, De facto Globalization and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Hodabalo BATAKA 
Université de Kara, Kara, Togo
Corresponding Author: Hodabalo BATAKA ,Tel: (00228) 93131379, Email: batakahodabalo8@gmail.com
Copyright ©2019 Journal of Economic Integration
ABSTRACT
Using data from 40 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries from 1980 to 2015, the present study examines the effects of globalization and its dimensions on economic growth by distinguishing the de jure and de facto aspects. Through second-generation panel data tests, the study analyzes the crosssectional dependence between the countries studied and adopts an appropriate methodology for its effectiveness treatment. The study finds an economic growth effect for the overall globalization in SSA countries. It also demonstrates that de jure globalization increases economic growth, while de facto aspect undermines this growth. However, this is still evidence that de jure, de facto economic globalization, and de jure social globalization promote economic growth. De facto social globalization and de jure political globalization remain ineffective, while de facto political dimension of globalization hinders growth.

JEL Classification
C23: Models with Panel Data; Longitudinal Data; Spatial Time Series
F43: Economic Growth of Open Economies
O10: General
O55: Africa
Keywords: De jure globalization | De facto globalization | Economic growth | Cross-sectional dependence | Panel data | Sub-Saharan Africa.
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