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Journal of Economic Integration 2015 June;30(2) :240-268.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.11130/jei.2015.30.2.240
Trade Creation, Diversion Effects and Exchange Rate Volatility in the Global Meat Trade
David Karemera
Won Koo
Gerald Smalls and 
Louis Whiteside 
South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, USA
North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA
Benedict College, Columbia, USA
South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, USA
Corresponding Author: David Karemera ,Tel: +803 5367136, Fax: +803 5333639, Email: karemera@scsu.edu
Copyright ©2015 Journal of Economic Integration
ABSTRACT
A modified gravity model is specified and applied to meat trade markets to identify factors affecting bovine and swine meat trade flows. The model is used to evaluate the effects of bilateral and regional free trade agreements. This study reveals that gravity models can be effectively parameterized and used in single commodity trade studies. Using data from 1986 to 2009, the results show that income, population, production capacity, distance, and exchange rate volatility are major factors affecting meat trade. The findings also demonstrate that the formation of the North American Free Trade Agreement and European Union significantly enhanced bovine and swine meat trade flows through trade creation among members and trade diversion from non-members to members. The Common Market of the South led to trade creation with inconclusive results for trade diversion while the Association of South-East Asian Nations led to trade diversion with no evidence of increased intra-bloc trade. The hoof-and-mouth disease significantly impaired bovine meat trade flows.

JEL Classification
F13: Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F15: Economic Integration
F19: Other
Keywords: Regional Free Trade Agreements | Trade Creation and Diversion | Exchange Rate Volatility | Bovine and Swine Meats | NAFTA | EU | ASEAN
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