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Journal of Economic Integration 2013 December;28(4) :580-609.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.11130/jei.2013.28.4.580
Middle East and North African Integration: through the lens of Non-Tariff Measures
Nicolas Péridy and 
Ahmed Ghoneim 
Université de Toulon, Toulon, France
Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Corresponding Author: Nicolas Péridy ,Tel: +33 494142982, Fax: +33 494142165, Email: nicolas.peridy@univ-tln.fr.
Copyright ©2013 Journal of Economic Integration
ABSTRACT
Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) have recently become a central issue for economists and policy makers. Based on a new database developed by the World Bank on five Middle East and North African(MENA) countries at a very detailed product level, this article provides calculations of the average tariff equivalents (AVEs) of NTMs in these countries. A second contribution is the development of an original empirical model with detailed trade costs. This makes it possible to provide the assessment of these NTMs impacts as well as other trade costs ones on the trade of goods in these countries. This analysis is also extended to the trade of 15 service sectors, through the use of the updated GTAP database. Results show that NTMs are very significant in the selected MENA countries. The model also shows that NTMs are significantly trade reducing in almost all MENA countries, especially Sanitary and Phytosanitary(SPS) measures. NTMs in services are also significantly trade reducing, especially in Maghreb countries. The study shows that not all NTMs must necessarily been reduced or removed, but the ones which are particular trade-reducing must be paid particular attention. In addition, the governments should also progress toward either mutual recognition, or the adoption of international standards especially in relation to technical standards.

JEL Classification
F13: Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
F14: Empirical Studies of Trade
F15: Economic Integration
Keywords: Non-Tariff Measures | Middle East and North Africa | Average Tariff Equivalent | Gravity Models
 
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