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Journal of Economic Integration 2013 September;28(3) :393-411.
What is Holding Back EU Exports to China?
Simon J. Evenett
Johannes Fritz and 
Martin Wermelinger 
University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
Corresponding Author: Simon J. Evenett ,Tel: +41 712242315, Fax: +41 712242298, Email:
Copyright ©2013 Journal of Economic Integration
Access to the fast-growing Chinese economy is prized by policymakers and business people but concerns that European firms are missing out on the Chinese boom have led to soul-searching concerning Europe’s competitiveness and to criticism leveled at Chinese protectionism. This paper examines the factors affecting the export share to China over the period of 2000 to 2010 of the first 15 members to join the European Union. China’s growing share in world spending is found to be the most important factor in this respect but labour cost differentials within Europe, commercial diplomacy, and export promotion policies by China have also contributed.

JEL Classification
F14: Empirical Studies of Trade
Keywords: European Union | China | Exports | Protectionism | Competitiveness | Commercial Diplomacy
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